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高中第二册(上) 【教材分析—重点难点分析
   
Unit 3 Body Language
 

[基础知识]   [拓展知识]

[拓展知识]

1.词法

  (1) manage
 

[说明] manage 在使用中常常表示“设法做成某事”,与succeed一词相近;而动词try则强调“试着去做, 不知结果如何”。
例如:The box was heavy, but she managed to carry it.= The box was heavy, but she succeeded in carrying it.
盒子很重,但她还是搬动了它。
I tried time and time again to move the stone but I still can't do it.
我一遍又一遍地试着搬动石头,但还是没办到。

  (2) pleasure
  [说明] pleasure 作为名词,常用在句型结构中,作“快乐,愉快,满足”解。与delighted;joy 同义。
1) It's a pleasure to do sth. 是客套语,意思是“很高兴做……”,相当于 be pleased / glad to do sth. 。
例如: It's a pleasure for me to be invited to speak here.= I'm glad to be invited to speak here. 应邀在这里讲话,我深感荣幸。
It's been a / my pleasure to talk to you like this.
象这样和你谈话真是件高兴的事。
Reading gives me great pleasure / joy.
阅读给我带来了许多愉快。
2) It's a pleasure. = A pleasure. 作“没什么,不用谢;这是我乐意做的事”解。
类似的习语还有:It's nothing; Not at all; You are welcome; Don't mention it; that's all right; My pleasure 等。
例如:—— Thank you, Mum, for your beautiful present.
妈妈,谢谢你给我的漂亮礼物。
—— Not at all, dear. It was a pleasure.
不用谢,这是我乐意做的事。
3) With pleasure = Yes / Certainly,意思是“当然可以, 愿意效劳”。
类似的习语还有:All right; No problem; I'd like to。这些习语主要用于别人求你做某事,你很乐意做的场合。
例如:—— Could you please mail the letter for me?
   你能否替我把这封信寄走吗?
   —— With pleasure.
   愿意效劳。
  (3) while
  [说明] while可以是多种词类,在高中英语中主要用在下列几个用法中。
1) while被用作并列连词,作“然而,而”解。表示前后意义上的对比或转折。
例如:Nodding the head means agreement, while shaking it means disagreement.
点头表示同意,而摇头表示不同意。
I earn only 50 dollars a week, while she earns 80 dollars.
我一个星期只赚50美元,而她却能挣80美元。
2) while 用作连词,表示“当……的时候; 和……同时”。常和谓语动词是进行时的句子或谓语表示状态的
句子搭配使用。As,when引导的时间状语从句在表强调时谓语动词才用进行时。
例如: He watched TV while (he was ) eating the food.
他边吃东西边看电视。
Strike while the iron is hot.
趁热打铁。
She called while I was out.
我不在家时她打来了电话。
4) while 用作连词,作“只要”解= as long as, 后跟从句。
例如:While there's a will, there's a way. 有志者,事竟成。
While there's life, there is hope.
留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。
You will want nothing while / as long as I am alive.
只要我活着你就不会缺任何东西。
  (4) take … for example
  [说明] take …for example 作“以……为例”;“比如说……”解,常用于阐明一件事的开头。
例如:Let's take this math problem for example.
让我们以这道数学题为例。
You can take your research work for example.
你可以拿你的研究工作做个例子。
短语take … for… 的意思是“把……当作;误认为是……”。
例如:In the first few weeks I took him for a Japanese.
在一开始的几个星期里我把他当成日本人。
Don't take me for a fool.
别把我当傻瓜。

[ 练习题 ]

 
  1. 1. She has a ____ sweet voice.

    A. pleasant  B. pleasing  C. pleasure  D. please

  2. I 'm sorry I took you ____ your elder brother at first.

    A. with   B. for   C. by   D. with

  3. —— Sorry to have given you so much trouble.
    —— ____.

    A. That's right  B. You're welcome C. It's kind of you to say so  D. That's all right

  4. She knows quite a lot ____ she is only a little girl.

    A. while   B. because   C. although   D. as

  5. I wonder how it ____ to live without eating for so many months.

    A. manages   B. keeps   C. tries   D. succeeds

    [想看答案吗?]

2. 语法句法

  动词不定式的相关问题
  1) 动词不定式的形式:
[ 说明 ] 动词不定式有六种形式,分别表示不定式的时态和语态。以write为例:
  一般式的主动形式:     to write
   完成式的主动形式:     to have written
   进行式的主动形式:     to be writing
   完成进行式的主动形式:   to have been writing
   一般式的被动形式:     to be written
   完成式的被动形式:     to have been written
例如:He seems to know everything about the accident.
他好象对事故了如指掌。
He pretended to be listening to the teacher attentively.
他假装在认真地听老师讲课。
I am sorry to have given you so much trouble.
对不起,给你添了这么多麻烦。
He is known to have been working on the problem for many years.
大家都知道他在这个难题上已经工作了许多年了。
I don't like to be talked to like that.
我不喜欢别人那么对我讲话。
2) 动词不定式的逻辑主语
[说明] 在动词不定式的应用中,有时需要交待动作是谁做的,这时需要把由介词for或of引导的逻
辑主语放在不定式之前,形成for sb. to do sth. 或of sb. to do sth. 结构。语法上也称作复合宾
语,或带逻辑主语的不定式短语。这种结构在句中作主语、表语、宾语、定语或状语。
It is + 形容词 + for sb.to do sth.; It is + 形容词 + of sb. to do sth.。
例如:It is impossible for us to get there before lunch.
我们午饭前到达那里是不可能的。
It was foolish of her to do that.
她做那件事太傻了。
注意:当表语形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的特征、品质时,要用of 而不是 for 引出不定式的逻
辑主语。
这种形容词常是:good, kind, nice, impolite, careless, brave, careful, cruel, honest, wise, rude, clever, silly, stupid 等。
3) 不定式的否定形式
[说明] 不定式的否定形式是将not 放在不定式之前,即 not to do sth., 或not do sth.。
例如:Tell him not to be late for class again.
告诉他上课不要再迟到了。
Why not try on this shirt?
为什么不试试这件衬衫?
[ 练习题 ]
 
  1. They said good-bye, little knowing that they ____ again.

      A. were never met       B. were never to meet
      C. were to never meet     D. are never to meet

  2. He got to the station only ____ the train had gone.

      A. and told    B. telling    C. told    D. to be told

  3. A new hospital was to ____ in this district, but the money wasn't collected yet.

      A. built   B. have built    C. be built    D. have been built

  4. Mary looks very anxious. She seemed ____ what the speaker really meant.

      A. not to understand      B. to be not understanding
      C. not to be understanding   D. not to have understood

  5. I would love ____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report.

      A. to have gone   B. to go   C. going   D. having gone

    [想看答案吗?]


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