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高中第一册(上) 【教材分析-重点难点分析
   
Unit 5 Why do you do that?
 
[基础知识]   [拓展知识]

[拓展知识]

1. 词法
  (1) burn
    [说明] 有 “燃烧,点燃,烧伤,烫伤” 之意。
    例如: Wood burns easily.
    木头容易燃烧。
    The little girl burnt a candle.
    那个小女孩点燃了一支蜡烛。
    If you take the pan of oil out of the room, you might get burnt.
    如果你拿着油锅到房间外面,你有可能被烫伤。
  (2) fetch
    [说明] bring,take, carry and fetch 都有 “拿,带” 的意思, 但bring指把某物或某人从别
    处“拿来,带来”。 take指把某人或某物从这里“带走或拿走”,从方向上说,这两个词是一反一
    正。而carry 是“拿,提,扛” 的意思,没有方向性。 fetch则指从此处到别处把某人或某物“带来
    或取来”。
    例如: Take this empty box away and bring me a full one.
    拿走这个空的盒子,给我拿个满的来。
    Can you carry this heavy box for me?
    你能帮我抬这个重箱子吗?
    Shall I fetch your hat for you from the next room?
    要我去隔壁房间把你的帽子拿来吗?
  (3) free
    [说明] free 是形容词,在本单元是“免费的”的意思。我们已学过“空闲的”的用法,它还有
    “自由的,不受约束的” 的意思。
    例如: I've got some free tickets for the theatre.
    我有一些免费戏票。
    I always go fishing when I am free.
    没事的时候,我总是去钓鱼。
    Slaves are the persons who are not free.
    奴隶就是失去自由的人。
  (4) keep
    [说明] keep后常接复合结构。如:带现在分词的复合结构,带过去分词的复合结构,
    带形容词的复合结构,带介词、副词的复合结构。
    其后还可跟sb./sth. from doing sth. 意为 “阻止某人做某事”。
    例如:Mother kept me doing my homework for three hours.
    妈妈让我一直做了三个小时的作业。
    Keep your mouth shut and your eyes open.
    少说话,多观察。
    Please keep the library quiet.
    请保持图书馆内的安静。
    The illness kept me at home for about one year.
    我的病让我在家呆了一年多。
    Keep the children away from the water's edge.
    让孩子离水边远一点。
    We must keep them from getting to know our plans.
    我们必须防止他们知道我们的计划。
 [练习题]
    1.  Don't waste any money; put it to some good ___ .
       A. time   B. results  C. chances   D. purpose
    2.  The government is considering further actions to ___ the pound from falling in the
      value.
       A. have   B. keep   C. hold   D. get
    3.  We all think he likes that film, but ____, he doesn't like it ____.
       A. in the past, at all   B. so that, after all  
       C. in fact, a bit      D. in fact, after all
    4.  ___ her parents, she went to the station early.
       A. fetching   B. He wants to fetch   C. In order to fetch  D. So that to fetch
    5.  We must do something to _____ the roof ___ .
       A. keep, falling       B. keeping , from falling
       C. keep, from falling    D. keeping, fallen
       [ 想看答案吗?]

2. 语法句法
  (1) none
    [说明]none 作主语时,谓语动词可用单数也可用复数。none既可指人也可指物,
    可与of短语连用。no one 只能指人,不能指物,不与of 连用。
    例如:None of us has seen that film.
    我们之中没有一个人看过那部电影。
    None of the books are interesting.
    这些书中没有一本有趣。
    No one knows about it.
    没有人知道那件事。
  (2) twice a year
    [说明] twice a year 意为 “一年两次”,表频率。“一次,两次” 用 “once,twice” 表示,
    三次以上用“…times”表示。提问时常用 “how often…”。
    例如:---How often do I take the medicine?
    我多长时间吃一次药?
    ---Three times a day.
    一天三次。
    We go to the suburbs of Beijing once a year to plant trees.
    我们每年去北京郊区种一次树。
  (3) percent
    [说明] 百分之……英语是percent。……的……,用percent of 表示。
    如:60 percent of students。
    percent of 后既可跟可数名词,也可跟不可数名词。
    当percent of +可数名词复数作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;当 percent of+可数名词单数
    或不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
    例如:They saved 90 percent of the trees.
    他们救活了90%的树。
    Fifty percent of the teachers in our school are women.
    我们学校50%是女老师。
    Only 30 percent of the earth is land.
    地球上只有30%是陆地。
  (4) 不定式定语需加介词的情况
    [说明]不定式作定语时与被修饰的词构成动宾关系,如在I have a lot of questions to ask
    句中,questions 是ask的宾语,二者构成动宾关系。但有时不能与名词搭配时,则要加介词。
    例如:I have no pen to write with.(pen不是write 的宾语,不能只说to write,要加
    介词) 我没有笔写。
    We must find restaurant to eat at. (不能只说 to eat)
    我们得找一个吃东西的饭馆。
    The chair is hard to sit on.(不能说to sit)
 [练习题]
    1.  When it rained, the soil was ___ down the hills and into the rivers.
       A. carried off   B. taken   C. brought   D. washed away
    2.  This kind of wine ____ grapes.
       A. is made of   B. is made from   C. is made into   D. is making by
    3.  ---Which of the films are interesting?
       ---____.
       A. None   B. No one   C. None of   D. Neither of
    4.  I fed the fish ___ the cat.
       A. on   B. at   C. for   D. to
    5.  They go to see a film ____ a month.
       A. two times   B. two   C. second   D. twice
       [ 想看答案吗?]


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